Finland. The Territory Of Finland. Finland – information about the country: geography, climate, flora and fauna. Map of Finland
Climate, flora and fauna
The climate of Finland is temperate, transitional to continental. The Finnish climate is much milder than you might think, given its Northern location. The average temperature 6-10 degrees higher than in similar latitudes of other places, due to its proximity to the Baltic sea and West winds from the Atlantic warmed by the Gulf stream. The warmest place is the Aland Islands (the average January temperature is -4’C). The most cold – the North-Western part of Lapland (-16’C). A large part of Finland has an average January temperature from -5’C to -7’C. Summer is cool, especially North of the Gulf of Bothnia. Night frosts occur even in July. The average temperature in July ranges from +15’C to +17’C.
The climate of Finland is characterized by a large number of windy days. Dominated by the southwest warm and humid winds blowing from the Bothnian sea and bringing the bulk of the precipitation. On the coast most precipitation falls in autumn, in the Central regions in winter. Sustainable snow cover is formed in the North in late October and lasts until the end of may, in the Central part – from late November to early may. Winters are long in Northern Lapland polar night lasts about 50 days. Gloomy winters offset by short but bright summer. In Northern areas the sun stays above the horizon for about 60 days.
Most of the area of the country (69%) is covered by forests, mainly coniferous, the taiga type. The main tree species in these forests are pine and spruce. Widespread birch. In the South, along the coast of the Gulf of Finland are common in mixed forest. Along with pine and spruce grow here are oak, elm, maple, hazel. In the mountains, altitudinal zonality is observed in the distribution of vegetation. The lower part of the slopes are covered with coniferous forests, birch forests are located above, next is mountain-tundra vegetation. Of the animals most commonly found foxes, hare, squirrel, ermine, marten, otter, polecat, mole. In the forests on the North and East preserved the moose. Bear, wolf and lynx are almost entirely destroyed and are found occasionally in Lapland.